GPS Error Correction With Pseudorange Evaluation Using Three-Dimensional Maps The accuracy of the positions of a pedestrian is very important and useful information for the statistics, advertisement, and safety of different applications. Although the GPS chip in a smartphone is currently the most convenient device to obtain the positions, it still suffers from the effect of multipath and nonline-of-sight propagation in urban canyons. These reflections could greatly degrade the performance of aGPS receiver. This paper describes an approach to estimate a pedestrian position by the aid of a 3-D map and a ray-tracing method. The proposed approach first distributes the numbers of position candidates around a reference position. The weighting of the position candidates is evaluated based on the similarity between the simulated pseudorange and the observed pseudorange. Simulated pseudoranges are calculated using a ray-tracing simulation and a 3-D map. Finally, the proposed method was verified through field experiments in an urban canyon in Tokyo. According to the results, the proposed approach successfully estimates the reflection and direct paths so that the estimate appears very close to the ground truth, whereas the result of a commercial GPS receiver is far from the ground truth. The results show that the proposed method has a smaller error distance than the conventional method.