Real-Time GPS Precise Point Positioning-Based Precipitable Water Vapor Estimation for Rainfall Monitoring and Forecasting GPS-based precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation has been proven as a cost-effective approach for numerical weather prediction. Most previous efforts focus on the performance evaluation of post-processed GPS-derived PWV estimates using International GNSS Service (IGS) satellite products with at least 3-9-h latency. However, the suggested timeliness for meteorological nowcasting is 5-30 min. Therefore, the latency has limited the GPS-based PWV estimation in real-time meteorological nowcasting. The limitation has been overcome since April 2013 when IGS released real-time GPS orbit and clock products. This becomes the focus of this paper, which investigates real-time GPS precise point positioning (PPP)-based PWV estimation and its potential for rainfall monitoring and forecasting. This paper first evaluates the accuracy of IGS CLK90 real-time orbit and clock products. Root-mean-square (RMS) errors of <; 5 cm and ~0.6 ns are revealed for real-time orbit and clock products, respectively, during July 4-10, 2013. Second, the real-time GPS PPP-derived PWV values obtained at IGS station WUHN are compared with the post-processed counterparts. The RMS difference of 2.4 mm has been identified with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. Third, two case studies, including a severe rainfall event and a series of moderate rainfall events, have been presented. The agreement between the real-time GPS PPP-derived PWV and ground rainfall records indicates the feasibility of real-timeGPS PPP-derived PWV for rainfall monitoring. Moreover, the significantly reduced latency demonstrates a promising perspective of real-time GPS PPP-based PWV estimation as an enhancement to existing forecasting systems for rainfall forecasting.